composition

6 Tips for Beginners Learning Photography

6 Tips for Beginners Learning Photography

Photography can be a very rewarding experience for many photographers. Not only do photographers create a permanent archive of memories, but the validation and criticism received when sharing your work – be it with friends and family or exhibiting in a gallery – can generate an amazing feeling and confidence within that photographer. While technology is making it easier and easier to “take” a good picture, many things are necessary in order to improve and “make” an extraordinary photograph.

Photo in my 2nd year of shooting.

Bern, Switzerland

 

In 2011, I started NYC Digital Photography Workshops, which has now collectively grown to over 5,000 members. Working alongside some of our world class instructors over these last six years, I’ve helped generate a terrific program, especially for beginners on how to best learn photography and have consistently seen positive results. Below are 12 tips for beginners on how to best learn photography.

 

DECIDE ON A WORKFLOW FIRST

I wanted to start with workflow first as not having one from the beginning was a personal mistake I made that resulted in over 30,000 images years later and not knowing where and how to start with organization. If you sit down, think about and create a good workflow from the beginning, you can avoid feeling like you will never be caught up because you keep changing your mind on how you want process your images from set up to sharing with the world.

I use Adobe Lightroom for the post-processing part of my workflow.

 

General Camera Setup

Since this article is primarily for beginners, it’s important to set up your camera’s general settings from the start and to know what will change from scenario to scenario. Some of the features you’ll want to consider setting up from Day One are:

 

  1. Your playback options of what is displayed on images upon playback such as highlights, RGB histogram and shooting data.

Info I’ve chosen to be shown on upon playback.

 

2. On your shooting menu, things such as file naming, card slot rules (if you have two card slots in your camera, what role each card slot will play), image quality (jpeg vs. RAW) and color space (sRGB or Adobe RGB). It’s extremely important for the sake of post-processing your images that you set your camera to record images in RAW format as this format will gather and record the most data. If you want to be able to instantly share your images, set your camera to RAW and JPEG together, but don’t just shoot JPEG as you will severely limit your editing options.

Shooting in RAW is extremely important for post-processing purposes.

 

3. On the video shooting menu (if you have this), you’ll want to set up your file naming convention, the destination where videos will go should you have more than one memory card slot, frame size/frame rate, movie quality, microphone sensitivity and wind noise reduction.

 

4. Under your custom menu, you might want to set up your general autofocus settings, metering and exposure settings such as ISO sensitivity, step value and EV steps, whether the camera beeps upon shooting (this can be helpful when shooting subjects in studio), continuous mode frames per second, whether or not you want to have a grid display in your viewfinder to help guide your composition and functions of the buttons on your camera. You can customize what the buttons on your camera do as you may find you use certain functions more than others and you’ll want to be able to adjust those quickly and easily, therefore, assigning those functions to buttons that are more easily accessible.

 

5. Under your setup menu, you may want to set up the color balance of your LCD monitor, your monitor brightness, the timezone and date/time, language, auto-rotation of images and customize your image copyright information.

 

How You’ll Backup

There are many ways you can backup your images as you create them with some ways being temporarily convenient while others are much more reliable in the long run.

Example backup sources (clockwise from top left): Dropbox (cloud), flash drive, desktop external

hard drive, memory card and portable hard drive.

Images courtesy of Adorama

 

Memory Cards. A CompactFlash or SD card will be your first method of backup as you are initially shooting your images (unless you are tethering to a computer or laptop…) This isn’t a reliable way to permanently store your images as they become full quickly, can be a bit pricey and offer no way to organize your images. Since you will need these regardless, I do not recommend using only one large capacity memory card when you shoot as should that one large capacity memory card become damaged, you will lose all of your images. Instead, use several smaller capacity cards so that if a card gets damaged, you only lose some of the images instead of all of them.

 

Flash Drives. While cloud-based platforms really make these unnecessary anymore these days, a flash drive is a great way to transport or deliver images should you want to share images in a place where you do not have a wifi connection. I wouldn’t recommend a flash drive for permanent storage of your images but more for when you might have a presentation and need to plug a pocket-friendly portable storage device into your laptop on the road.

 

External Hard Drives. An external hard drive is a “must” as local, secondary backup source. A couple of great options for external hard drives are the WD My Passport Ultra 2TB USB 3.0 Portable Hard Drive, the LaCie 6TB 2big Quadra Hard Disk Two Bay RAID Desktop Drive or what I have: the LaCie 4TB Rugged RAID 2.5″ External Hard Drive, Thunderbolt, USB 3.0. I’m a big fan of RAID drives because you can set up half of the drive to mirror the other half so that if one half goes down, you’re still backed up because the both halves of the drive are identical. Portable hard drives are a great backup option when you don’t have access to wifi to backup to cloud storage.

 

Cloud Backup and Storage. Your best option for backing up and sharing your work is cloud storage. Some of most common options out there are Dropbox, Microsoft OneDrive, iDrive, Google Drive (Google Photos), Apple iCloud Drive and Box. I was very pleased to find that Google Drive/Google Photos has options of 100GB to 30TB in storage ranging from $1.99 per month to $299.99 per month.

 

 

How You’ll Process Images

Another major workflow decision that you’ll want to decide on is what software you will use to organize and process your images. There are many choices out there such as Aperture, Capture One, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Lightroom. I will be honest with you. Adobe has some of the best software out there for importing, organizing, processing and sharing your images. We generally teach our students to use Adobe Lightroom because it’s so easy to use and you can batch process images, to do as much as you can in Lightroom first and then do any fine tuning in Photoshop. You can take advantage of a free trial of Adobe Lightroom here: http://www.adobe.com/creativecloud/photography.html.


Various photo editing/tethering software such as PK Tether, Camera RC,

Control My Nikon, Aperture, Capture One and Lightroom.

 

Naming Conventions

When using photo editing software, you’ll want to decide up front on the naming convention of your images and the folders they will be stored in. Due to keywording features, some photographers keep all of their images in one folder, thoroughly keyword their images and then they are able to locate them upon a search later down the road. I personally title my folders by “yyyy-mm-dd Project Name or Subject Title” and then my images are titles “Subject Title-Sequence Number”. It’s really up to you how you prefer to organize and name your images, but it’s good to decide this in advance to avoid having to go back 20,000 images later and reorganize and rename everything in a consistent manner.

 

Keywording Your Images

Lightroom is a great tool for not only organizing your images but also locating your images when images are thoroughly keyworded. I try to be as descriptive as possible with keywording for each of my shoots so that if I need to find all images of models with black hair across all of my images, I can easily search and see only the images I have of models with black hair. It automatically picks up image information such as the camera and lens used, the date the image was created and the settings for each image (aperture, shutter speed and ISO).


Keywording in Lightroom

 

How You’ll Organize the Images

Going along with the topic of naming conventions and keywording, Adobe Lightroom is a great tool for organizing your images because you can import, create folders and move images from folder to folder within Lightroom and it mirrors the same organization on your local hard drive. An important tip: If you use Lightroom, don’t try to move images from folder to folder directly on your local drive instead of through Lightroom as when you go to look for the images in Lightroom again, you will have to locate and relink the images in Lightroom to the new location where you moved the images on your local drive.

Organizing images into folders in Lightroom.

 

If you’re interested in learning more about Adobe Lightroom, Adobe Photoshop or any other photo editing software, my group, NYC Digital Photography Workshops offers private workshops with photo editing guru, Clifford Pickett, who specializes in Lightroom, but also teaches other software as well. For more information, you can email pi@nycdpw.com.

 

GET TO KNOW YOUR CAMERA

You just got your camera and you’re ready to hit the ground running to start creating amazing images. It happens all too often though, that a new photographer will get frustrated with not getting the shot they want because they can’t figure out how to use the camera and they end up putting the camera into a drawer, never to be picked up again. Let’s safeguard that from happening to you.

 

Read Your Manual

You’ve probably heard this many times, and most of us hate to do it, but the best way to get to know your camera is to read your manual from front to back. I know, I’m terrible at manuals too, and usually don’t even look at directions when putting furniture together, but this is one instance where it will make using your camera a whole lot easier.

Read your camera manual cover to cover!

 

Try Out Every Function on the Camera

As you go through your camera manual, try out every function you read about to better understand what it does, where it is and when you might use it.

 

Lenses & Focal Length

While the camera is the performance mechanism for your kit, the lens is what creates the quality of an image once you’ve learned technique and composition. As you acquire lenses, you should have at least one good lens in your kit, which usually do not come cheap. As the saying goes, you can put a high quality lens on a non-top-of-the-line camera and still get a great shot but you can’t put a bad piece of glass on a top of the line camera and still get that same shot!

Just a few of my lenses.

 

What lens(es) you choose will be up to what you shoot. If you fancy shooting landscapes, a wider angle lens would be a good bet and those can vary in focal lengths. If you like to shoot portraits, a prime lens like an 85mm and using your feet to zoom in and out would work, or a zoom lens like a 70-200mm would do the trick – depending on how much space you have to shoot your subject.

 

LEARN MANUAL SETTINGS TO OBTAIN PROPER EXPOSURE

Learning manual settings give you more control over your shooting.

 

Program Mode

The program mode can be helpful for beginners as a place to start when learning manual settings. Set your ISO and the camera will select the aperture and shutter speed for a properly exposed image. This mode is a good start to see and understand the relationship of aperture, shutter speed and ISO and where you might want to make adjustments to these elements in full manual.

 

The Aperture Mode

With Aperture Priority, you select the aperture and ISO and the camera figures out the shutter speed for optimal exposure. Aperture Priority is best when you are wanting to control the Depth of Field. When shooting things like landscapes, cityscapes and seascapes, you will most likely want everything sharp in focus, so you will need the maximum aperture (a higher number). When you are photographing people, whether it’s portraits or headshots, you will most likely want your subject to be the only thing in focus with things behind your subject out of focus so as to avoid mergers and distractions in the portrait or headshot.

The background is out of focus here through a shallow depth of field.

 

The Shutter Priority Mode

When using the Shutter Priority mode, you select the shutter speed and ISO and the camera determines the aperture to obtain a proper exposure. The shutter speed priority mode is best used when you are trying to capture motion or to control freezing motion and to make everything in the image sharp.

 

Full Manual Mode

If you choose to use full Manual mode, you are controlling all aspects of the capture: the aperture, shutter speed and ISO.

Aperture is basically how large the opening of the lens is when a picture is taken. The aperture is what controls the amount of light that enters the camera. The smaller the opening (the higher the number), the less light will come into the camera. The larger the opening (the lower the number), the more light will come into the camera.

Shutter speed can best be described as the amount of time that the shutter stays open when a picture is taken. The longer you leave the shutter open, the more light that gets onto the sensor.

ISO is the measure of sensitivity your camera has to available light. The lower the ISO setting, the less sensitive your camera will be to light. The higher the ISO setting, the more sensitive your camera can be to light. The part of your camera that needs this input to make an image is the image sensor. The image sensor is what takes available light and creates the image. As a rule of thumb, you want to try and keep your ISO as low as possible to obtain the best image quality. You want to use a low ISO setting when there is plenty of available light to satisfy the sensor sensitivity to make the image. The workaround to use a low ISO setting in a low-light environment would be to stabilize your camera on a tripod or sit it on a stable surface and set a longer shutter time to allow more light onto the sensor. Note that anything moving within the frame may disappear or become blurred in motion. You may want to use a higher ISO when you are in a low-light environment but want everything captured within the frame and/or are limited in time to capture the image. Again, you may have to compromise image quality (introduction of grain) to get that low-light shot quickly.

 

LEARN THE KELVIN SCALE & WHITE BALANCE

To top off a good exposure, you want to also make sure that you have the proper white balance in your photo.

 

White Balance Settings

As you can see in the first image below, tungsten lights tend to produce a warm yellow-orangish hue while a typical fluorescent light might produce a little bit of a greenish hue. If you look at a scene on a cloudy day or if it is in a shady area, the image might have a slight cool cast. Your camera offers quick white balance settings for lighting situations like shade, cloudy days, sunlight, artificial/flash light, tungsten and fluorescent lighting to balance the color of your images. For more control over the white balance of your images, it’s a good idea to learn the Kelvin Scale and how to use it in certain lighting situations.

 

The Kelvin Scale

White balance and the Kelvin Scale.

Image courtesy of Google

Since the goal is correct white balance, you want to match the Kelvin number to the environment lighting. When using tungstens, for example, you’ll want to set your Kelvin number to somewhere around 3000 to get a proper white balance.

 

Tools to Help With White Balance

The easiest way to get your white balance correct is to use an 18% gray card and correct your images in post-production. You can also use the same Lastolite Gray Card or an ExpoDisc 2.0, snap a photo using one or the other and use that photo to set white balance under the Custom White Balance setting in your camera.

Lastolite Gray Card (left) and ExpoDisc 2.0 on the right.

Images courtesy of Adorama

If you don’t have a 18% gray card or an ExpoDisc, you can still get your white balance close to accurate by using the white balance settings in your camera and/or making adjustments in post-processing.

 

STUDY COMPOSITION

Good composition of a photograph is generally what will make the subject of a photograph more appealing to a viewer. To break the rules of composition, you first should learn the rules. Some elements of composition to familiarize yourself with are: The Rule of Thirds, line, balance, motion, shutter speed, depth of field, focal length, light, color, form, positive/negative space, camera position, texture, pattern, contrast and tone.

Lines make this image a little more appealing to look at. The S-Curve takes a viewer’s eyes through the image.

 

A good exercise is to go through a bunch of magazines and tear out the images you like, and then determine if composition played a part in its appeal to you.

It’s good to study magazines containing photos of your favorite genre to shoot to determine what about the image appeals to you.

I wrote a great article earlier this year that involves many of the elements of composition among other things that make an image more appealing called, Creativity & Awareness: Learning to See Before the Capture. Be sure to check it out.

 

LEARN LIGHT

Light and shadows are what make up photography, after all, the word photography literally means “to draw with light”. Light and shadows can create patterns on surfaces, which we’ve already determined is appeasing to the viewer’s eye. It can also create lightest and darkest areas of an image whereas the lightest part of an image generally will attract a viewer’s eye before anything else.

 

Natural Light

Many photographers may think that natural light photography is easy but it’s uncontrolled light that spills everywhere and with things like harsh daylight, can cause very harsh shadows, not to mention cause your subject to squint, which can really break a photograph. Once you learn some of the tools and techniques necessary to control natural light, this type of lighting can be your definitely be your friend.

Playing with the shadows of the trees in natural daylight.

Model: Daria Komarkova

 

The best time to photograph outdoors is when there are clouds in the sky. Why? Because the clouds serve as a natural diffuser to soften the harsh light the sun produces. However, when you don’t have cloud cover and you still have to shoot, you learn to find workarounds like breaking up harsh sunlight with a tree’s shadows or using a manmade diffuser to soften the light. A white sheet works wonders and can be tied or clamped to trees or light stands or held by assistants. If you can swing it, you can buy a large portable collapsible reflector, which generally has a diffuser as the base option when the covers are taken off. Another option is a scrim which you can attach to a light stand to diffuse light from the sun.

Using a reflector shooting in natural light.

Image courtesy of Yann Bizeul

What is really important to learn whether you shoot indoors or outdoors and no matter the subject is how to use a portable collapsible reflector to bounce light back onto a subject to fill in those harsh shadows. Learn how to angle the reflector and see the light on your subject and you will always have a well-lit subject.

 


Artificial Light

Another great way to learn light is by purchasing one or two continuous lights and placing them in various positions around your subject. This will give you the what-you-see-is-what-you-get (WYSIWYG) result of how the position of lights affect the way your subject will be lit. These are a great learning tool prior to obtaining monolights. Adorama has a great Flashpoint CL-1144R Circular LED Two-Light Kit to work with for $560.95.

One of my first portraits with monolights.

Model: Tara Virada

 

CONCLUSION

As a newbie to photography, these are going to be the six most important keys to learning your craft as exposure (learning your manual settings to obtain this properly), white balance, composition and light are the most important elements of photography while having a workflow in place and knowing how to use your camera will make your creating and processing your images a lot easier and much less stressful down the road. Stay tuned for more tips for new photographers learning photography – coming soon!

 

Posted by Dawn Wayand in Workshop, 0 comments
The Art of Portraiture Part 1: Composition, Depth of Field & Background

The Art of Portraiture Part 1: Composition, Depth of Field & Background

Creating a portrait of a person isn’t always an easy task. A portrait should represent its subject, his or her character, likes and dislikes, feelings, mood and more. I love portraiture. I love to capture people with their raw, naked emotion and to show my subject an image of their true self.

An outdoor portrait of a model/actress – with a lucky tailwind to boot!

Model/Actress: Valery Lessard

 

They are always moved in what they see, when showing them the reflection of what I captured of who they are. I also like to manipulate emotions and get my subject to step outside of their comfort zones such as in the image below.

Good boy turned bad.

Model: Baron Jackson

 

It was really tough to get my subject above to play a bad boy as he was a sweet kid with a crazy positive attitude, but he was thrilled to see a different side of him that I was able to bring out with a little coaxing.

 

COMPOSITION

Composition can make or break an image. There are many techniques to gaining a great composition in portraiture. The first, most commonly known guideline is the Rule of Thirds.

 

Rule of Thirds

We’ve all heard of it: The Rule of Thirds. The term “rule”, though, sounds like there is no room for deviation. As an educator, I prefer to think of it as more like “guideline” for composition as it then becomes much less dreadful and a little more beneficial.  The Rule of Thirds is taking a frame and dividing it equally into three sections horizontally and equally into three sections vertically using two lines each resulting in nine equal-sized boxes (imagine a tic-tac-toe box…) Composing your frame so that your focus point of your subject falls on one or more of the four intersecting points, tends to make an image more naturally appealing for a viewer to engage.

The subject’s eye falls on one of the four intersecting points.

Model: Sietzka Wiersma

 

While you may not always get your subject perfectly on one of the four intersecting points, aligning your subject along any one of those four lines still makes for a more balanced image.

 

Alter Perspectives and Angles

I once had a mentor mention that if you want your images to be better than 80% of the rest of the images out there in the world, change your perspective! This means, get down low and shoot upward…

Self-portrait shot from below.

 

Or get up high and shoot downward…

Self-portrait shot from above.

 

Use Negative Space

The use of negative space can also be appealing when shooting a portrait. I’ve always been a huge fan of shooting my portraits and headshots horizontally when most people shoot them portrait-oriented… I never knew why it was more appealing to me until I realized that I was turned on by the use of negative space, which is also a big turn-on of famous photographer, Peter Hurley.

The use of negative space.

Model: Andy Mizerek

 

Framing Your Subject

You can also make your portraits more interesting by framing your subject, whether it is by using the nook of a tree, an arch of a doorway or even some faux leaves, as I have done in the image below.

Framing my subject’s face using vines.

Model: Kathryn Hopkins

 

Orientation

Sometimes the orientation of an image can make all the difference. Once upon a time, a very wise mentor once taught me, “What’s the first thing you do after you take a picture…? You turn the camera 90 degrees.” Basically meaning, if you take a landscape-oriented image to turn the camera and take the same image portrait-oriented directly after or vice-versa.

Here my model is tall and I captured much more of the scene in the image portrait-oriented.

Model: Daria Komarkova

 

This tip works well with ANY type of photograph that you capture as you may find after returning to your computer or laptop to process your images that an image worked better vertically than horizontally or vice-versa..

In this image, I was able to crop in closer to focus more on the model and her expression than on the scene.

Model: Daria Komarkova

 

DEPTH OF FIELD

 

Shallow Depth of Field

  • Move Closer. The closer you are to your subject when you shoot, the shallower the depth of field. If you want more of the image to be in focus, you’ll want to put more distance between you and the subject.

I got in close as at 70mm I could using a 70-200mm lens.

Model: Katie Buell

 

  • Large Aperture. There’s a reason for the attraction to a lens that has a large aperture (low number).  A larger aperture will allow for a shallower depth of field whereas a smaller aperture will put more into focus. I used an aperture of F/2 on the image below.

I used an aperture of F/2 here.

Model: Andy Mizerek

 

BACKGROUND

A background can make or break your image. Put your subject in front of a super busy scene and it takes the focus off of your subject – not to mention, it can sometimes create mergers. Your background should not have a bunch of distractions and should help focus attention on your subject. Other factors of a good background are that it helps give context to your subject and the scene and it can aid in telling a story in your image without saying a word.

 

Give Context

A good background will help give context and meaning to a portrait. A perfect example of what I mean by context is an environmental portrait. Photographing someone in their natural environment adds context and impact to an image.

The subject appears to be taking a break from working for an environmental portrait.

Model: Andy Mizerek

 

Tells a Story

An interesting portrait will also tell a story without a companion writer having to write a word. I love creating sets that tell stories, such as in the image below. I wanted to create the feel of capturing an artist in the midst of a high note as she was singing, so I lent my microphone, microphone stand, headphones and a pop filter for the set and I put her on a bright blue background for impact. Your eye is instantly attracted to the bold blue color and then the subject dressed in a contrasting bright white.

The addition of props and a bold background lend to the interest of this image.

Model: Maria Iodice

 

General Background Choices

 

  • Outdoor/Interior Choices. An indoor or outdoor location background can be a wonderful choice and can give context to editorial, fashion and environmental portrait work, however, sometimes the background can be a bit busy and distracting causing the need for some type of faux background.

An outdoor background in the busy Times Square area.

Model: Lisette Melendez

 

  • Seamless Paper. If you are looking a clean, crisp and simple background, seamless is definitely the way to go. Savage seamless paper alone comes in around 69 colors to choose from, making it an optimal choice if you are looking for a specific color. You can buy a 9-foot wide, 12-yard roll of Savage Pure White Seamless Paper for around $45.00 at Adorama.

Savage Smoke Gray seamless paper

Model: Daria Komarkova

 

My Auto Poles with Interfit Chain System for Seamless Paper

 

Seamless paper requires a few additional pieces for support than other backgrounds and these different pieces can be pricey unless you put your kit together yourself like I did. My kit consists of two (2) Manfrotto Auto Poles at $114.99 each, an Interfit Wall Bracket Kit at $79.25 which you can attach to your wall or to a couple of Auto Poles and a four (4) of Manfrotto 035 Super Clamps w/o Studs at $26.88 each.

Manfrotto Auto Pole

Image Courtesy of Adorama website.

 

Interfit Wall Bracket Kit

Image courtesy of Adorama website.

 

My Manfrotto 035 Super Clamps

 

  • Vinyl.  Another classic and preferred choice for photographers is vinyl. It gets a great reputation because it hangs flat whereas muslin tends to wrinkle easily and seamless tends to crinkle and get dirty more easily. Vinyl is easy to clean and takes up very little space to store as it can be stored straight up and down in a corner.

My versatile 6-foot roll of vinyl -black on one side and white on the other.

 

  • Portable. Portable backgrounds can be a great choice as they are versatile, convenient due to collapsibility and inexpensive. You can use them in the studio or take them with you on location. A 6-foot portable background can fold up into a circle as small as 24 inches. They typically have a border so may not be a great choice for a full-length shot, but they work perfectly for headshots, portraits and three-quarter body shots.

Portable Collapsible Background

 

The Savage Black & White 60”x72” Collapsible Background shown above is available at Adorama for $127.50.

 

  • Muslin. Muslin can be an excellent choice to shoot with since it’s not reflective at all, folds as small as you need and can be hung from a portable background support and costs a fraction of some of the other choices. This all-cotton option is a classic choice for these reasons. Imagine, before cameras, how the old masters’ portrait paintings sometimes had a drape of material in the background. They knew it worked then. We know it works now.

Collaged image by Dawn M. Wayand – original image pieces courtesy of the Adorama website.

 

  • Canvas. Canvas backdrops come in a variety of sizes, colors and designs. They are a good choice because they can be reused over and over again but they can also be a bit heavy to set up. You can use a canvas backdrop multiple times without your image looking the same by changing up your foreground elements and your subject’s wardrobe and accessories. Canvas backdrops, however, can be one of the most expensive choices of all of the choices I’ve listed but can be one of the most creative as well. A very small sample of canvas backdrops available at Adorama below include (clockwise from top left): Arctic Blue, Black, Seville and Classic Rembrandt.

Collaged image by Dawn M. Wayand – original image pieces courtesy of the Adorama website.

 

  • Floordrops. Floor drops are often used together with back drops to recreate a scene. They typically come in designs such as wood floors, brick walls, metal panels or tile as shown below. A rubber floor drop also makes for a great backdrop when going for a more edgy feel to an image. It’s simple enough to still keep the focus on your subject. A small sample of floor drops below include (clockwise from top-left): Industrial Grunge, Mosaic Pavers, Worn Planks and Red Brick.

Collaged image by Dawn M. Wayand – original image pieces courtesy of the Adorama website.

 

  • Other Creative Backgrounds. I’m all for thinking outside the box and making my backgrounds as interesting as possible. Some other great creative choices for backgrounds include materials such as wallpaper, sequin fabric and designer art paper which makes for a great headshot background that you can get at your local art store for between $4-10 each piece (as shown below), among numerous other options. Put your creative thinking cap on and figure out some other interesting backgrounds that might work for you.

Just a few of the creative art papers I’ve collected over time for headshot opportunities.

 

Here I used a black crocodile art paper as a background to add a little texture to this beauty shot.

Model: Daria Komarkova

 

COMPOSITION AND BACKGROUND CAN BE EVERYTHING…

As you can see, how you compose your image can make all the difference between a humdrum photo and a much more stunning portrait. It’s also important to choose your background wisely. There are so many options out there. If you choose an outdoor or interior background, be sure that your subject IS the subject of the image and that the background doesn’t take the show. Composition, depth of field and background are just a few elements to the Art of Portraiture. Stay tuned for the next article, The Art of Portraiture: Light.

Posted by Dawn Wayand in Workshop, 0 comments
Creativity & Awareness: Learning to See Before the Capture

Creativity & Awareness: Learning to See Before the Capture

“You don’t take a photograph – you make it”   – Ansel Adams

 

Seeing is the very essence of photography as much so as the light that is needed for a photograph to exist. It’s a consistent and continuous mental activity that we do everyday as we go to school, go to work, go out for a night on the town, traveling and so forth.


While this image has been digitally enhanced, there are several elements of composition here lending to an interesting image.

The Adirondacks, Upstate New York

 

Remember when you were younger, the game of “Punch Bug” that you might have played with a friend or family member(s) where you called out “punch bug” and the color, whenever you saw a Volkswagen Beetle? You then begin to notice Beetles a lot more often after making it a practice to find them in the game. Perhaps you buy a new car and it’s not until you own the drive the car that you notice how many other people are on the road drive the same type of car. It’s only when you practice looking for something or when you are involved in or with a certain thing that you start to see it everywhere when you never really noticed that thing before. This is a form of “awareness” as you become more aware of something because you’ve been exposed to it in some way.

When you become more aware of your surroundings, the more photographic opportunities will arise for you. Below are various elements and techniques to help you train your eye to create more interesting images.

 

THE ART OF COMPOSITION

 

Lines

I never really formally studied art until I was 33 years old, living in St. Petersburg and attending Eckerd College after having already acquired a bachelor’s degree in Legal Studies. I decided to major in Visual Arts and in the very first class I took, I spent the entire semester working with lines. The first exercise I had was to use sharpie only and create faces using a certain number of straight and curved lines.

By week 5, the faces became more character-like as I was released more and more from line restrictions.

 

As the semester progressed, the exercises built upon the exercise from before until I had gone from being a realistic artist to an abstract artist. It was a terrific exercise to creativity. While that was drawing and painting, photographing has a use for lines as well in the form of the S-Curve, leading lines and patterns.

 

The S-Curve

Some of you may somehow find an image of a winding road through a scene to be very interesting to look at and there is a pretty good reason for this. It’s generally called an S-Curve and it helps to take a viewer’s eyes throughout an image from bottom to top and left to right (and vice-versa).

The S-Curve of the flowerbed here takes your eyes from the bottom of the image to the top.

Toronto, Canada

 

Leading Lines

Leading lines help to connect the foreground to the background of an image and they also create a sense of depth and dimension, bringing the viewer into the image. They give a sense of an infinite beyond. Some good examples of a leading lines are straight roadways and paths or even a river or creek.

The leading line of the path here creates a sense of infinite distance.

Madrid, Spain

The little creek connects the foreground to the background here.

Near Mont Tremblant, Canada

 

Patterns

Patterns give way to be an interesting element to photograph. Symmetry and repetitive things in an image are good examples of types of patterns to try to capture. In the image below, not only is there a sort of C-Curve in this image taking the viewers eyes from one side to the other, but there is a repetition of shadows, windows and arches that pulls attention into the image.

Also a good example of a leading line, there’s several repetitive aspects in this image.

Sevilla, Spain

 

Complementary Colors for a Pop Factor

If you remember the color wheel in grade school and learning about primary, secondary and tertiary colors as well as complimentary colors. Balance and harmony of an image not to mention a nice pop can be created using color contrast, which is why the use of complementary colors can be effective in composition.

 

The use of red and green complementary colors.

Brooklyn Botanical Gardens

 

Orange and blue…

The use of orange and blue complementary colors.

Munich, Germany

 

and purple and yellow…

The use of purple and yellow complementary colors.

New York Botanical Gardens Annual Orchid Show

 

Texture

Another element of composition that makes for an interesting capture is the element of texture. Photographing fur, wool or even in the case below, the macro capture of a flower petal conveying the feeling of a velvet-like touch appeals to a viewer’s sense of touch.

The detail conveys a velvet-like feel of the petal stimulating a viewer’s sense of touch.

New York Botanical Gardens Annual Orchid Show

 

Negative Space

Negative space is the area surrounding your main subject with your main subject known as “positive space”. Negative space is a natural relief for a viewer’s eyes to rest and prevents your image from appearing too cluttered.

I like using negative space in my headshots and portraits (and here, a self-portrait…)

 

Negative space also places more emphasis and bring the viewer’s attention more clearly to the main subject of your image.


The negative space of the sky, though textured, brings the viewers attention to the main subject, this statue.

Iwo Jima Monument, Arlington, Virginia

 

Close Crop

The opposite of negative space really is cropping in close, used mainly to eliminate distractions around a main subject, but also to capture detail and/or for artistic purposes. It also works well when your subject is stuck in broad daylight.

Capturing a tight crop of a tiger in harsh daylight works.

Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida

 

Motion

An interesting way of grabbing a viewer’s attention is through a capture of motion. In the image below I focused on the center guitarist’s face, allowing the movement to show throughout the rest of the image, which brings the image to life.

Amongst the crowd watching a mariachi band I capture motion to bring my image to life.

Madrid, Spain

 

Light & Shadows

Light and shadows are what make up photography, after all, the word photography literally means “to draw with light”. Light and shadows can create patterns on surfaces, which we’ve already determined is appeasing to the viewer’s eye. It can also create lightest and darkest areas of an image whereas the lightest part of an image generally will attract a viewer’s eye before anything else.

Here we not only have repetition with the columns, but the

light and shadows cast patterns on the wall and ground.

Sevilla, Spain

 

As you can see here, the brightest part of this image draws your eye inward first

Central Park, New York

 

RULE OF THIRDS AND POINTS OF IMPACT

Almost all of us has heard of the Rule of Thirds. Using an off-center composition has been known to be more appeasing to the viewer’s eye. This composition also tends to appears more natural when taking in an image rather than an image with a subject dead center.

The boat falls on the top left intersecting point of the grid.

Niagara Falls, Canada

 

The Rule of Thirds is when you divide your frame into a grid of three equal rows and three equal columns = nine equal sections total with the object being to place your main subject on one of the four guidelines, preferably at one of the four intersection points.

 

FRAMING

Another useful tool in creating a more creative capture is the use of framing your your subject. You can do this using a crook in the arm of a tree, a windowpane an arch of a doorway and so on and so forth – you get the picture. Framing your subject helps to bring focus on your subject, much like literally putting your image in a photo frame.

I used the curving arm of a tree to frame the serene lake with its beaming sunlight cast upon it.

Near the Adirondacks in Upstate New York at Fall

 

Here I used an arch in the foreground to frame the gentleman relaxing on the stone wall in the background.

Malaga, Spain

 

PERSPECTIVES AND ANGLES

Someone once taught me, “If you want to make your photography better than 80% of other photography out there in the world, change your perspective.” This was probably some of the best advice I had ever heard. If you just stand there, put the camera to your eye and take the image, anyone can do that and your images may appear to be more snapshot-like. We don’t want just snapshots – we want interesting and captivating images!

I kneeled down to capture the tulips at a level of their own height.

Battery Park City in the Spring.

 

Move about a scene and try different levels: get up on the wall or bench and shoot down. Lie on the ground and shoot your subject from below (a “bug’s eye view”). Or get at the subject’s level for a more realistic impact, which works especially well for photographing animals and children.


Shooting from above.

Madrid, Spain

 

I entitled the image above, “I Am Here” as the pants and shoes are dusty and worn. Most people know that I am a traveller and this was my expression of my journeys. While you can lay down and shoot upward, in the image below, I placed my camera lens up on the ground and shot the tulips from a bug’s eye view.

Shooting from below.

Brooklyn Botanical Garden

 

CREATIVE LENS USE

Sometimes you can get more creative with your images just by lens choice. A wide angle or fisheye lens is a fun lens to capture a little bit of distortion in your images, giving them a bit more powerful grip on the viewer. In the image below I had borrowed a Canon 7D Mark II Camera used a Canon EF8-15mm F/4L Fisheye Zoom Lens to capture the children running through the Fall leaves.

Timing and a fun lens made this image a bit more dynamic.

Storm King Art Center, Upstate New York

 

TIMING

Other times it can come down to the perfect moment. Sometimes life just happens before you and you get lucky enough to pull your camera to your face, set your settings and capture the moment before it disappears forever. There is also the trick of anticipating the moment. Oftentimes this works well with photographing sports as well as animals. I once sat at the window of a polar bear exhibit at a zoo for almost an hour studying the swimming pattern of the polar bear – trying to figure out how I was not only going to capture the image, but to do so in a way getting the image as sharp as possible and without glare. The image didn’t turn out half bad minus the abundance of breathing bubbles, but there is certainly something to be said about predicting the actions of your subject.

As I walked past this alleyway, I saw this duo and rushed quickly to take the shot as knew it was a fleeting moment.

Malaga, Spain

 

Whether it’s your lucky moment, like for me in the image above, or if you sit perched and waiting for the perfect moment to happen, such as what I did in the image below – timing can be everything to creating a beautiful image.

For this image I actually sat and waited for someone to walk through

the archway and found this to be an authentic shot of daily life in Sevilla.

Sevilla, Spain

 

EXERCISES TO HELP TRAIN THE EYE

There are many ways to develop a better awareness of photographic opportunities around you using the composition elements and techniques above as guidance for end results. A few starter exercises could be:

  1. Study the works of the Masters and how they used composition, color, light, etc. for inspiration in your own photographs.
  2. Lock yourself in a room and commit to taking 100-150 photos of various things in a room. You will definitely find that you are looking at something a different way for the first time after this exercise.
  3. Commit to photographing only objects of one color or monochromatic only.

 

There are many books with 365 Projects that can also be a great tool to help you train your eye, but if nothing else, the more you get out and shoot, the more practice you’ll have in finding creative ways to shoot even the most ordinary of an object.

 

LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP!

You’ve probably been told to get it right in camera in the first place and quit thinking about post-production. Yes, post-production can enhance an image and can sometimes also create a whole new image depending on your skill but the bottom line is that you need to have a strong image to begin with, so practicing with the goal of a creative capture in camera is the best way to do just that.

 

Posted by Dawn Wayand in Workshop, 0 comments